Roman numerals may contain M, D, C, L, X, V
You can also use this to determine the day of the week for any
Gregorian or Julian date.
Gregorian calendar input before 15th October 1582 or after 30th January 4247 is not valid. There was wide variation in the date of adoption of the Gregorian calendar. For example, in Great Britain and colonies, the Julian date Wednesday 2nd September 1752 Old Style was followed the next day by the Gregorian date Thursday 14th September 1752.
Julian calendar input before 1st March 4 or after 31st December 4246 is not valid. The conversion assumes that Julian years began on 1st January, but in many countries this was not the case, with New Year's Day falling on some other date, so users should allow for this where necessary. For example, in England the last day of 1750, Sunday 24th March 1750 Old Style was followed by the first day of 1751, Lady Day, Monday 25th March 1751 Old Style.
Roman dates between A.D. XIX KAL. IAN. and PRID. KAL. IAN. (14th - 31st December) present a conundrum: whether to state the year as the current year, or to state the year as the year to which these dates are referenced, i.e. as the year which follows on 1st January. This conversion adopts the latter method, as detailed in Calendrical Calculations (referenced below) chapter 3.2, page 70.
For further calendar information, see
Old Style and New Style Dates and the Change to the Gregorian Calendar, by Mike Spathaky;
Calendopaedia - The Encyclopaedia of Calendars, by Michael Astbury;
Reingold & Dershowitz, 2001, Calendrical Calculations, The Millennium Edition, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-77152-6;
Richards, 1998, Mapping Time, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0 19 286205 7; date conversion algorithms used here are based, with thanks, upon those given in chapter 25;
Blackburn & Holford-Strevens, 1999, The Oxford Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0 19 214231 3.
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